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中国下一代运载火箭  

2014-10-21 18:21:32|  分类: 宇航工程 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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IAC2014上的论文

IAC-14.D2.1.11,x20929
The New Generation Launch Vehicles In China

Meng Xiang
Marketing Department, China Academy of Launch vehicle Technology, Beijing, mengxiang@calt.com.cn
Li Tongyu
Marketing Department, China Academy of Launch vehicle Technology, Beijing, Litongyu@calt.com.cn

Abstract: China will launch it’s new generation launch vehicle LM-5(Long March 5) in the near future. As the basic configuration of new series launch vehicles, LM-5 will pave the way for the following development of LM-6, LM-7 etc.. This paper presents the design principle, the development concept, the main characteristics of LM-5, and also gives the developing scenario and configuration of the following new launch vehicles. As the main power of space transportation in the future, the international cooperation and commercial launch service with new generation launch vehicle will also be expected.

1.The history of Long March launch vehicles

China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) is the cradle of Long March (LM) launch vehicles. The development of the LM launch vehicles began in the mid-1960s and a family of launch vehicles has been evolved for a full range of missions and payloads.
The LM-1 is the first launch vehicle developed by CALT, which sending the first Chinese satellite into a low earth orbit in April 1970.
The LM-2 is a two-stage launch vehicle. Its upgraded version, the LM-2C successfully launched in November 1975. The LM-2E uses LM-2C as the core stage, around which there are four strap-on boosters. The LM-2E has been evolved to LM-2F, which was used for launching spaceships.
The LM-3 is a three-stage launch vehicle, of which the first and second stages were derived from the LM-2C. The third stage has a cryogenic engine, using LOX and LH2 as the propellants. The LM-3 has been phased out because a new launch vehicle, LM-3A, was developed with a more powerful third stage.
The LM-3B employs the LM-3A as the core stage plus four strap-on boosters. The first LM-3B launch was conducted in February 1996. Except for the failure of the maiden flight, all other LM-3B flights were successful. The LM-3C is a simplified version of LM-3B with only two strap-on boosters on the first stage.
The LM-2D and LM-4 Series launch vehicles are developed and manufactured by Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST).
The LM-1, LM-2, LM-2E, LM-3 are no longer in service. The LM-2C, LM-2D, LM-2F, LM-4 Series are mainly used for LEO and SSO mission, the LM-3A Series, including LM-3A, LM-3B and LM-3C, are the workhorse for GTO missions.

2. The new generation launch vehicles

The new generation launch vehicles include LM-5, LM-6, LM-7 series launch vehicles, which were started to develop from 2006. They will replace the current launch vehicles in step by step and will significantly improve China space transportation capability, capable of meeting the rising requirements of spacecraft launch in the future 20-30 years.
The new generation launch vehicles are designed on the principle of “One-series, Two-engine, three-module” to reduce cost and improve reliability. With the non-toxic and non-polluting propellants including LH2, LOX and Kerosene, they are all environment friendly. “Three-module” refers to the 5m-dia module with LOX/LH2 propellant, 3.35m-dia module with LOX/Kerosene propellant and 2.25m-dia module with LOX/Kerosene. “Two-engines”refers to the newly designed 50t YF-77 engine using LOX/LH2 propellant and 120t YF-100 engine using LOX/Kerosene.

2.1 LM-5 Series Launch Vehicle
The LM-5 series launch vehicle mainly uses for manned space station, lunar probe, heavy satellite and multi-satellite launch missions.
LM-5 is a two-stage launch vehicle with a core stage of 5m and 4 identical strap-on boosters of 3.35m. The GTO launch capability is 13000kg.
The LM-5B launch vehicle is a single stage launch vehicle with 4 identical strap-on boosters of 3.35m. Its LEO launch capability is 23000kg.

中国下一代运载火箭 - kktt - 长缨在手  敢缚苍龙
LM-5 LM-5B

2.2 LM-6 Launch Vehicle
The LM-6 launch vehicle is developing by SAST. Its first stage is 3.35m in diameter with one YF-100 engine. The second stage and third stage are all 2.25m in diameter with one YF-115 engine and 5KN engines respectively. The fairing is 2.6m in diameter. The launch capacity is 500kg ~1000kg for 700km SSO depending on the telemetry limitation.
中国下一代运载火箭 - kktt - 长缨在手  敢缚苍龙
LM-6

2.3 LM-7 Series Launch Vehicle
The LM-7 is a two-stage launch vehicle with a core stage of 3.35m and 4 identical strap-on boosters of 2.25m. The LEO launch capability is 13500 kg.

中国下一代运载火箭 - kktt - 长缨在手  敢缚苍龙
LM-7 LM-734 LM-720

The LM-734 (temporary name) launch vehicle is a three-stage launch vehicle with LM-7 plus the third stage of LM-3A. Its GTO launch capability is 7000kg.
The LM-720 (temporary name) launch vehicle is two-stage launch vehicle with the first core stage of LM-7 plus the third stage of LM-3A. Its SSO launch capability is 2900kg for 700km.

2.4 New Upper stages
There are two kinds of upper stages for 3.35m module and 5m module respectively, which are LMU-1 and LMU-2 (Temporary name). The LM-5 and LM-7 launch vehicle plus upper stages can put the satellites into SSO, MEO or GEO directly. Equipped with multi-burn motor, the upper stages can accomplish multiple satellites distributing missions.

The LMU-1 is as follows.
中国下一代运载火箭 - kktt - 长缨在手  敢缚苍龙
LMU-1

The LMU-2 is as follows.
中国下一代运载火箭 - kktt - 长缨在手  敢缚苍龙
LMU-2

3. LM-5 and LM-5B launch vehicle Characteristics

LM-5 series has two configurations, LM-5 and LM-5B. LM-5 is mainly for GTO, LTO, SSO missions while LM-5B is mainly for LEO mission.

中国下一代运载火箭 - kktt - 长缨在手  敢缚苍龙
 
LM-5
中国下一代运载火箭 - kktt - 长缨在手  敢缚苍龙
LM-5B

3.1 Technical Parameters
 Parameters LM-5 LM-5B
 Core stage diameters (m) 5.0 5.0
 Booster diameters (m) 3.35 3.35
 Fairing diameters (m) 5.2 5.2
 Fairing length (m) 12.267 20.5
 Maximum diameter of payload static envelope (m) 4.5 4.5
 Total length (m) 56.97 53.66
 Target orbit GTO LEO
 Payload mass (t) 13 23
 Gross mass (t) 867 837
 Lift thrust (KN) 10565 10565
  
3.2 Propulsion System
There are 2 YF-77 engines installed in the first stage. Each engine can swing in both tangential and radial direction. There are 2 YF-100 engines installed in each booster. The outer engine is fixed, and the inner engine can swing in tangential direction. There are 2 YF-75D engines installed in the second stage, using cryogenic propellants (LOX/LH2). Each engine can swing in both tangential and radial directions.

3.3 Launch and Support System
Assembly and testing operations are accomplished in vertical assembly and testing building. The SC/LV is transferred to launch pad by a movable launch platform. Supply tower is on the movable launch platform, connecting to the launch vehicle by umbilicals.

中国下一代运载火箭 - kktt - 长缨在手  敢缚苍龙
 
The launch site locates in Hainan province, facing to South China Sea. With low latitude, the launch site is suitable for LEO, GTO, GEO, S-GEO, MTO, MEO, LTO, SSO and deep space exploration missions.

中国下一代运载火箭 - kktt - 长缨在手  敢缚苍龙
Launch Arimuth

3.4 Payload Capability of Typical Orbits
 Orbit Launch Vehicle orbit inclination (°)Orbit altitude (kmXkm)
Capacity (t)
 LEO LM5B 42 200x400 23
 GTO LM5 19.5 200x36000 13
 LTO LM5 24.5 200x380000 8.2
 GEO LM5+LMU2 0 36000x36000 5.1
 SSO LM5 108 700x700 15
 SSO LM5+LMU2 108 2000x2000 6.7
 MTO LM5 55 200x26000 13
 MEO LM5+LMU2 55 26000x26000 4.5
  
4. LM-7 launch vehicle Characteristics

LM-7 is designed for launching cargo spacecraft, but the evolved versions can also satisfy SSO and GTO missions. LM-7 employs a 3.35-m-dia first stage, a 3.35-m-dia second stage, and 4 2.25-m-dia boosters.

4.1 Technical Parameters
 Parameters LM-7
 Core stage diameter (m) 3.35
 Booster diameter (m) 2.25
 Fairing length (m) 12.7
 Fairing diameter (m) 4.2
 Maximum diameter of payload static envelope 3.8
 Total length (m) 56.1
 Target orbit LEO
 Payload mass (t) 13.5
 Gross mass (t) 595
 Lift off thrust (KN) 7128
  
中国下一代运载火箭 - kktt - 长缨在手  敢缚苍龙
 
4.2 Propulsion System

There are 2 YF-100 engines installed in the first stage. Each engine can swing in both tangential and radial directions. There is one YF-100 engine installed in each booster. The engine can swing in tangential direction. There are 4 engines (YF-115) installed in the second stage, using cryogenic propellants (LOX, kerosene). Two engines are fixed, and the others can swing in tangential and radial direction.

4.3 Launch and Support System

Assembly and testing operations are accomplished in vertical assembly and testing building. The SC/LV is transferred to launch pad by a movable launch platform. Supply tower is on the movable launch platform, connecting to the launch vehicle by umbilicals.

5. Future development

The new generation launch vehicle will take its maiden flight in the near future. It will replace the active service launch vehicle gradually. A more powerful launch vehicle LM-heavy is under studying now, together with the new generation launch vehicle, they will remarkably improve the into space capability of China.

From the first international commercial launch in 1990, Long March launch vehicles have finished 45 International commercial launches, including 9 piggyback services which provided options for foreign customers with attractive price and excellent quality. Long March launch vehicle with comprehensive coverage of payload capability will play a greater role in the world. We are willing to work with other countries in space exploration and peaceful use of space.
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